A shoe consists of sole, insole, outsole, midsole, heel, and vamp (upper). They are the basic parts of a shoe that are mostly included in all types off shoes. Other parts of a shoe are lining, tongue, quarter, welt and backstay. These parts are included as per the design of the shoes.
Sole: The exterior bottom part of a shoe is the sole.
Insole: The interior bottom of a shoe, which sits directly beneath the foot, is its insole. They can be removable and replaceable too. In some of the shoes, extra insoles are often added for comfort, health or other reasons, such as to control the shape, moisture, or smell of the shoe.
Outsole: It is that layer of the shoe that is in direct contact with the ground. These can be made of various materials like leather, natural or synthetic rubber etc. Often the heel of the sole is made from rubber for durability and traction and the front is made of leather for style.
Midsole: The layer that lies between the outsole and the insole for shock absorption, is the midsole. Some special shoes, like running shoes have other materials for shock absorption, that usually lie beneath the heel where one puts the most pressure down. Materials used for midsoles depend on the shoe manufacturers. Some shoes can be made even without a midsole.
Heel: The rear part at the bottom of a shoe is the heel. It supports the heels of the feet. Heels of a shoe are often made from the same material as the sole of the shoe. It can be high for fashion purpose or for making a person look taller. They are also flat for comfort and practical use.
Vamp, or upper: The upper part of a shoe that helps in holding the shoe onto the foot is the vamp or simply called the upper. This part is often embellished or given different styles to make shoes attractive.